Agricultural production is a livelihood for millions of farmers and thousands of households in East Africa. The numerous farming communities have been producing food for decades. Though the high de-fragmentation of land due to urbanization and inheritance, farming is still the backbone of the east African economies.
The ultimate output in production is high yield. There are various factors that affect the yield of the crops and livestock that the farmers own. These endogenous and exogenous factors determine the possibility of utilizing the massive agricultural resources at disposal for farmers to produce sufficient food for subsistence and trade.
The first endogenous factor affecting food production are the quality of the variety and breed. High yielding varieties and breeds are usually expensive to acquire and maintain. However, they are worth every cent with their impressive output. There are numerous government and private funded research institutions that are providing hybrids that are equally high yielding and at the same time adaptive and easier to maintain. Other factors include the quality of labour, the capital outlay and the mindset.
The exogenous factors include the environment necessary for production. The soil, the climate, the living conditions of the livestock and knowledge and information availability. These factors inhibit the conduciveness of the environment the crop is being grown or the livestock is being reared.