Green Peas Farming

Green Peas Farming

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INTRODUCTION

Green Peas also called Garden pea or English pea or snow pea or mangetout originated in South-West Asia. Peas are cultivated for the. Some cultivars are grown for their tender green pods such as snap peas (sugar snaps) and snow peas (sweet peas) mainly for export. The crop is also suitable as forage, hay, silage and green manure. Total area of garden peas in 2005 was 5,313 hectares and for snow peas 1,550 hectares for both local and export market.Green Peas grown for fresh consumption of their seeds. Snow peas or sugar peas have edible flat pods and very small seeds.

PRODUCTION

Varieties Green Peas (Green Feast, Earlicrop, Alderman, Onward)Snow Peas (Mammoth Melting Sugar, Dwarf Grey Sugar, Oregon Sugar Pod, Sugar Snap, Toledo)
Seed Rate 25-30 kgs/ha
Fertilizer Rate 200 kg/ha of rock phosphate. 20tons/ha of manure.
Planting Spacing Double rows of 10 x 50 to 60 cm
Husbandry Peas are sown directly on well prepared moist soils. The seeds should be planted at a depth of 2.5 cm if the soils are deep. Inoculate the seeds with rhizobium. The first key need of peas is moisture. Also weed control is very essential at an early stage to reduce competition for nutrients. Shallow cultivation is recommended to avoid root damage. A suitable crop rotation with grains, potatoes and brassicas should be used. Peas staking is also recommended.
Pest & Diseases Pest Name Symptoms Control
Cutworms Plant is cut at ground level. Use Pesticides
Ascochyta blight Round to irregular, dark brown to purple spots Use resistant varieties.
Maturity Duration 2 – 3 Months
Climatic Conditions Peas produce best yields and quality in cool and moist growing conditions. They grow reasonably well between 10 and 30°C and a minimum of 400 to 500 mm rainfall per cropping season. Can be grown above an altitude of 750 m. Peas can grow on a wide range of soils but thrive best on a well-drained soil with an optimum pH of 6 to 7.7 and a high content of soil organic matter.
Harvesting The time to harvest is determined by the appearance of the pods. For garden peas this means pods should be well filled but still smooth and green. Pod peas are harvested when pods have reached full size but before development of seeds. As the pods mature the sugar content decreases and market appeal is lost. The harvesting period may last 4 to 6 weeks. For dry peas the whole plant can be uprooted when about 80% of pods have turned brown and dry. The haulm is then either left in the field or carried to a threshing place to dry completely, after which the peas are threshed and winnowed.
Post Harvest and Storage Harvested pods are sorted and packed. Washing is not desirable as it may bruise the pods; so soiled pods are discarded during sorting along with malformed or diseased pods. Rejected peas are excellent animal feed. Fresh peas can be refrigerated while dry peas are kept in a cool dry place with moisture less than 12%
Growing Regions Central, Eastern, Western and Nyanza under irrigation.
Expected yields Shelled Dry Pea Seed: 2.5 to 3.5 tons per hectarePea Pods: 5 to 6 tons per hectare

PROCESSING

Processing Ground into Flour; Canned

MARKETING

Place Marketed locally and exported
Price Dry Peas: Kshs. 25 – 60 per kgPeas Pods: kshs. 40 – 85 per kg

CONSUMPTION

Products and uses Fresh green seeds, tender green pods, dried seeds and foliage
Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values Carbohydrates 14.5 / 5%; Energy 81.0 / 4%; Proteins 5.4 / 11%; Phosphorus 108 / 11%; Potassium 244 / 7%; Vitamin C 40.0 / 67%.

FACTS & FIGURES

Kenya export of garden peas in 2005 amounted to 2,206 tons and of snow peas 1,739 tons.

BUSINESS CASE

Income Per Hectare: Kshs 200,000 (5,000kgs * 40/-)Cost per Hectare: Kshs. 60,000 (30% of Income).

NET:    Kshs. 140,000 (70% of Income).

Break Even Yield (Where Cost=Income): = 1500 kgs per hectare.

Income Frequency: Twice per year.