Rice Farming

Rice Farming

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INTRODUCTION

Rice locally known as mchele or mpunga (upland rice) can be irrigated, rain-fed lowland and upland. Rice is cultivated primarily for the grain. Grains are quite nutritious when not polished.

PRODUCTION

Varieties Basmati 217/370, IR 19090/ 2035-25-2/ 2793-80-1 irrigated.NERICA 1/4/10/11, TGR 94, WAB 181-18 for Uplands.
Seed Rate 50kg/ha
Fertilizer Rate 58 kg P2O5 and 80kg N per hectare
Planting Spacing 25 cm
Husbandry Select seeds, hot water treat them, soak and drain them after 24 to 48 hours. Broadcast the seeds uniformly in the rate of 80 to100g/m². Do not submerge nursery immediately after broadcast. Plough and flood the fields to a depth of 10 cm, 15 days before transplanting. Transplant 3 to 4 weeks after sowing at 4 to 5 leaf stage. For the first weeks, maintain water at 80% crop height.
Pest & Diseases Pest Name Symptoms Control
Stink bugs Shrivelled and unfilled grains Spray with Pyrethrins
Damping off disease Yellowing and drying off of leaves and straws. Use certified disease-free seeds
Maturity Duration 4-6 months
Climatic Conditions Rice thrives on land that is water saturated or even submerged during part or all of its growth. Optimal temperatures for rice growing are 20 to 37.7°C, and a pH is between 5 and 7. Rice grow in altitudes ranging from 0 to 2500 m above sea level. Rain fed rice requires an average of 800 to 2000 mm of rainfall The crop is salt tolerant and prefers a friable loam overlying heavy clay, as in many coastal and delta areas.
Harvesting 7 to 10 days before harvesting, drain the field to harden the soil for good harvesting and also to hasten the drying and ripening of the rice grains. Rice is cut, swathed and threshed from windrow. The crop should be ready to harvest when 80% of the panicles are straw dust coloured and the grain in the lower portion are in the hard dough stage. Cutting can be done with a sickle.
Post Harvest and Storage The cut stems are bundled for transport to the threshing place, where final drying to around 12% moisture takes place before threshing and storage.
Growing Regions Mwea, Ahero and Bunyala Schemes
Expected yields 3 – 8 tons per hectare.

PROCESSING

Processing Polished and packed in Packets for resale.

MARKETING

Place Marketed locally.
Price Kshs. 60-100 per kg

CONSUMPTION

Products and uses Rice Grain is cooked as White Rice, Pilau, Biriyani.Rice hulls produce industrial alpha cellulose and furfural.Rice straw is used as roofing and packing material, feed, fertiliser, and fuel.

Rice grain makes Rice Wine in Japan.

Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values Energy: 130 / 7%; Carbohydrates: 28.2 / 9%; Proteins: 2.7 / 5%.

FACTS & FIGURES

Kenya has a yearly production of about 100,000 metric tons about 60% of countries consumption.84% of rice consumed in Kenya is irrigated.

BUSINESS CASE

Income Per Hectare: Kshs 180,000 (3,000kgs * 60/-)Cost per Hectare: Kshs. 70,000 (40% of Income).NET:    Kshs. 110,000 (60% of Income).

Break Even Yield (Where Cost=Income): = 1150 kgs per hectare.

Income Frequency: Twice per year.