Soya Bean Farming

Soya Bean Farming

SHARE

INTRODUCTION

Soybean is one of the most important legumes due to its high content of protein (35-40 %) and oil (15-22 %). In sub-Saharan Africa, soybean is mostly grown by small-scale farmers either as a sole crop or mixed with sorghum, maize or cassava.

PRODUCTION

Varieties Hill J499; Duicker; X-baration; Nyala; Gazelle, Sable
Seed Rate 60-70 kg / ha
Fertilizer Rate 100-150kg Phosphate per ha and treat seed with 100g/15kg of Rhizobium
Planting Spacing 45 x drill.  Thin to 10 15cm between plants
Husbandry Soybeans are propagated by seed. Soybeans are cultivated both as a sole crop and in various intercropping systems with maize, cassava, sorghum, banana, sugar-cane, rubber, oil palm, coconut and fruit-trees. Early seed bed preparation with removal of couch and watergrass is the first step.
Pest & Diseases Pest Name Symptoms Control
CutwormAnthracnose Leave have hoes or windows sunken leaves spot Spray with an insecticide e.g. Dipterex EC soon after emergence copper fungicide.  It is not economical to use chemicals on Soya
Expected Duration from Planting to Harvesting 2.5 – 7 months
Climatic Conditions Soybean is grown from the Equator to latitude 55°N or 55°S, and from below sea level to altitudes close to 2000 m. Soybean requires 400 to 500 mm rainfall and pH to 6.0 or 6.5 and to obtain optimum yield.
Harvesting The plants are cut near the ground or pulled with their roots at physiological maturity when most leaves have aged and turned yellow, and at least one pod per plant have turned brown or black. Vegetable soybeans are harvested when the pods are still green but when the seeds have filled the pod.Soybeans can be harvested by hand or by combine harvesters. Once threshed, dry the soybeans to below 12 % moisture content before storing.
Post Harvest and Storage Keep in a clean store and prevent weevil attack using pesticide. Seeds meant for seed should not be stored for longer than 1 year due to rapid loss of germination capability.
Growing Regions Homa Bay, Bukura, Kakamega, Embu, Bahati, Baraton, Menengai, Matayos, Gachoka, Makueni, Ol Ronga
Expected yields Up to 1800 – 2600kg/ha possible with right varieties

PROCESSING

Processing Soybeans are fermented and dried. They are pressed for oil. The cake is used in animal feed meal

MARKETING

Place Soya Beans are sold locally for making vegetable oil. It’s also exported.
Price Kshs 5000 – 11000 per 100 kgs.

CONSUMPTION

Products / By Products Soya milk, Tofu, Soya sauce, Soya Meal and Bean sprouts. Soya is also medicinal, Soya Oil (Salad oil, Cooking oil, Margarine)
Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values Energy 446 / 22%; Carbohydrates 30.2 / 10%; Fat 19.9 / 31%; Protein 36.5 / 73%; Calcium 277 / 28% ; Phosphorus 704 / 70%; Iron 15.7 / 87%; Pottasium 1797 / 51% . Soyabean is also medicinal

FACTS & FIGURES

Soybeans (preferably black ones) are included in medicines to improve the function of the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach and bowels.

BUSINESS CASE

Income Per Hectare: Kshs 90,000 (1,800kgs * 50/-)Cost per Hectare: Kshs. 20,000 (23% of Income).NET:    Kshs. 70,000 (77% of Income).

Break Even Yield (Where Cost=Income): = 4 bags per hectare.

Income Frequency: Once per year for rainfed. Twice for Irrigation.