|Cassava typically grows as a shrub and a native of Latin America. It was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders in the late 16th century. It is grown on 80 million hectares in 34 African countries. Cassava requires few production skills or inputs, is drought tolerant and produces reasonable yields under adverse conditions. It has ability to remain in the soil as a famine reserve. Other factors that make cassava popular with small-scale farmers its requirement for little labour in its production and its yields fluctuate less than those of cereals. It’s a guaranteed crop.|
|Varieties||Western Kenya varieties (Migyera, SS4, Mh95/0183, Serere, 12200 TMs, 30337, TMs 60142, GK1, GK9)
Kibanda meno – very sweet
Katsunga – leaves taste like wild lettuce when cooked
Kaleso (46106/27) – high yielding, for human consumption
Guso – Better yielder than Kaleso. Also for human consumption
5543/156 – It is a high yielding variety for livestock. It is bitter.
|Seed Rate||10,000 – 15,000 Cutting per ha|
|Fertilizer Rate||Not economical to use fertilizers manure be used at a rate of 20 tons ha.|
|Planting Spacing||1m x 1m (grown alone)|
|Husbandry||Cassava is propagated through cuttings. The most suitable cuttings are 20-30 cm long and 20-25 mm in diameter (with 5-8 nodes), preferably from the middle browned-skinned portion of the stems of plants 8-14 months old. Planting on mounds and ridges is recommended. Weeding is necessary every 3-4 weeks until 2-3 months after planting.|
|Pest & Diseases||Pest Name||Symptoms||Control|
|Cassava Mosaic virus||Curled leaves yellow stripes on leaves||Plant resistant varieties rouging of infected plants|
|Expected Duration from Planting to Harvesting||6-15 Months depending on variety|
|Climatic Conditions||Cassava can be grown up to 1500 m altitude. The optimum temperature range is 20-30° with 500-6000 mm of rainfall per year. Best growth and yield are obtained on fertile sandy loams. The optimum pH is between 5.5 and 7.5.|
|Harvesting||Harvesting is done either piece-meal for young plants or by uprooting whole plants for old plants.|
|Post Harvest and Storage||Cassava does not store well when fresh and therefore has to be peeled, chopped and dried in the sun. It can then be stored in the form of chips or flour under dry conditions.|
|Growing Regions||Coast region, Eastern Kenya and ukambani, Western Kenya|
|Expected yields||Up to 10-25 tons/Ha depending on variety|
|Processing||Cassava is grated and sun dried. Its then processed into chips or flour. It can also be fermented.|
|Place||Cassava is marketed locally in markets and household to household. There are also intermediaries that buy and take it to urban areas and other areas where its not grown but needed.|
|Price||Kshs 1000 – 2500 per 100kg bag|
|Products / By Products||Cassava Crisps and chips, Cassava Flour|
|Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values||Energy 160 / 8%; Carbohydrates 38.1 / 13%; Fat 0.3 / 0%; Protein 1.4 / 3%; Phosphorus 27.0 / 3%; Iron 0.3 / 1%; Pottasium 271 / 8%; Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.1 / 6%; Riboflavin 0.0 / 3%;|
FACTS & FIGURES
|Cassava varieties contain cyanogenic glucosides, and inadequate processing can lead to high toxicity|
|Income Per Hectare: Kshs 100,000 (10,000kgs * 10/-).
Cost per Hectare: Kshs. 15,000 (15% of Income).
NET Kshs. 85,000 (80% of Income).
Break Even Yield (Where Cost=Income) = 15 bags (1.5 tons) per hectare.
Income Frequency: Once per year.