Pig Farming

Pig Farming

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INTRODUCTION

Pig farming in Kenya can yield a rapid rate of return on capital employed if only pig farmers make little attempt to obtain maximum productivity. Often pig farmers let pigs to roam freely scavenging for their food and occasionally supplementing them with kitchen waste or farm by-products. Local breeds are kept where shelter or veterinary arrangements are rarely considered. Pig Farming is one of the most profitable agricultural ventures in Kenya. Pigs are not very demanding to keep unlike poultry. The three ingredients to a successful pig farming operation are getting the right breed, giving the right feed and Proper care.
Pig farming can be practiced as an independent venture or as apart of mixed farming operations. You can keep pigs alongside dairy cattle and feed the pigs the same food.

PRODUCTION

Breeds Large white, landrace, duroc, Hampshire, pietrain, saddleback
Brooding Pure-breeding: mating purebred individuals of the same breed. The progeny has the same genetic makeup. The major objective of pure-breeding is to identify and propagate superior genes for use in commercial production primarily in crossbreeding programs as well as to propagate and identify superior females for maintaining valuable genetic material.Cross breeding: mating two individuals from different breeds thus introducing into the progeny a gene combination that is different from that existing in either parent or in the breed of either parent. Cross breeding can involve two or more breeds, depending on the desired result. The sole purpose of cross breeding is to take advantage of the observed improvement in performance of the progeny above that of either parent.Out breeding: mating individuals of the same breed but which are less closely related than the average of the breed. There should not be a common ancestor for at least four generation back in the pedigree of the boar and the females with which he is mated. It is a useful mating system in purebred individuals

In breeding: mating individuals of the same breed but which are more closely related than the average of the breed. This could be between such close individuals as those from the same litter or a boar and his daughter. Inbreeding is rarely practiced because it can cause problems such as a decrease in litter size and increases mortality. Inbred sows are inferior in milking and mothering ability. It delays sexual maturity in gilts and boars. Inbred boars have less sexual libido. Inbred gilts have fewer eggs during oestrus and farrow smaller litters than those out bred.

Piglet rearing Keep the piglet warm. New born piglet do not generate their own warmth, thus they must be kept warm. Use a heat pad or heat lamp to achieve this aim. An ideal temperature is 27- 30°C (85 – 90°F). Ensure the floor is dry and the area is free from draughts.

Feed the Piglet correctly. Ideally the piglet should be fed a proprietary sows milk replacer. This can be bought from most animal health stores. An alternative is to use a goats (kid) milk replacer. If neither are readily available, use condensed milk watered down 33% with water to start with until you find a milk replacer. Cows milk is not ideal for a new born piglet as it will find it difficult to digest. This can be used after a few days, but is not a good substitute for a properly formulated milk replacer.

Warm the milk to body temperature for the first few days and feed using a human baby bottle and teat. After a few days, the piglet should quickly learn to drink for a small bowl, which may be easier. To teach the piglet, at feeding time, place the milk in the bowl and dip the pigs nose into it. After doing this a few times the piglet will get the idea and learn to drink from the feeder. The piglet will probably need to be fed approximately every 3 – 4 hours for the first several days, then 3 – 4 times a day until weaning. At birth the piglet will probably drink 2 to 3 tablespoons of milk each feed. This will gradually increase each day as the piglet grows. Introduce the piglet to solid food from 7 – 10 days. A specialist piglet starter creep is ideal. The piglet can be weaned off the milk at around 5½ – 6 kg (12-14 lbs) in weight, usually this is around 28 days of age.

Iron. A piglet is born with a limited supply of iron and it is necessary to supplement this to prevent the piglet getting anaemia. This is done by either injection of Iron Dextran (2cc) or the administration of an iron paste, around 2 or 3 days of age. This can be bought from your local animal health supplier, follow label instructions.

Feeds and feeding Pigs feed on both grains and meat. They can also be fed with cooked table scraps and vegetables. Corn is their most common food, but they could benefit from having a diet with protein from soybeans or cooked meat. Further, they grow faster with vitamins and other supplements. Piglets have higher protein requirements than mature ones. Feeds can be bought packaged and in bulk. Pigs must also have adequate supply of drinking water daily, about 8 to15 litres. Provide water either through a tub or automatic nipple waterer.
Pest & Diseases Pest Name Symptoms Control
Swine fever Loss of appetite, diarrhoea  Keep animals warm
Foot and mouth Fevers blisters on feet and mouth Keep the barn dry
Aujeszkys Nervous and respiratory system problems Keep the animals warm
Housing Pigs need housing to keep them warm during cold temperatures and to shelter them from excessive heat. Pigs are sensitive to heat and could die from heat stress. When housed indoors, temperature conditions must be well regulated. Controlled temperature conditions can help maximize growth. Cooling mechanisms for pigs can come in the form of drip water system or a wallow (for a hog pen). The housing should have a space for feeding and bedding.
Regions Kiambu, muranga, nakuru and ngong.
Expected yields  You can rear 25 pigs per acre. Each pig yields about 50-70 kgs of meat.

PROCESSING

Processing Pork is processed into sausages, bacons and pork chops.

MARKETING

Place Pigs are sold locally as meat and internationally as processed pork.
Price 1 kg of pork is Kshs 300

CONSUMPTION

Products / Uses Pigs are mainly kept for meat, which in return is processed to Hams, smoked pork, gammon, bacon and sausages.
Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values Fat 13.92g, saturated fat 5.230g, monosaturated fat 6.190g, polysaturated fat 1.200g, protein 27.32g, water 57.87, vitaminB6 0.464mg, vitamin B12 0.70ug, choline 93.9mg, vitamin 0.6MG, vitaminD 53iu, calcium 19mg, iron 0.87mg, magnesium 28mg, phosphorous 246mg, potassium 423mg, sodium 62mg and zinc 2.39mg.

FACTS & FIGURES

Pigs are extraordinarily intelligent. Smarter than young children of at least 3 years of age, dogs, and even some primates.

Pigs are extremely social animals. They form close bonds with other individuals and love close contact and lying down together.

Pigs are very clean, keeping their toilet area far away from where they lie down and eat.

Pigs are very peaceful animals, rarely showing aggression.

Winston Churchill famously said that “Dogs look up to man. Cats look down to man. Pigs look us straight in the eye and see an equal.”

BUSINESS CASE

Per Acre per yearIncome = Kshs 300*200kgs*25pigs = Kshs. 1,500,000Expense: 80 percent = Kshs. 1,050,000

Net Profit: Kshs. 450,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

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