The local names are Machungwa (oranges), Ndimu (limes), Limau (lemons), Madanzi (grapefruits), Chenza (tangerines/mandarins) all in Swahili. Citrus are natives of the subtropical and tropical regions of Asia and the Malay Archipelago. The common citrus fruits are Oranges, Limes, Grapefruits, Lemons and Mandarins


Varieties Washington Navel and Valencia Late (Oranges), Eureka (Lemon), Tahiti (Lime), Ruby Red and Red Blush (Grapefruit)
Seed Rate 150 to 500 seedlings per ha
Fertilizer Rate 20 kg of manure per tree.
Planting Spacing 5 x 6 m with a plant population of 150 to 500 trees per ha
Husbandry The most common method of citrus propagation is by budding. Transplant in the field at onset of rains. Clear the field and dig planting holes 60 x 60 x 60 cm. Keep the trees free of weeds and maintain a single stem up to a height of 80-100 cm. Intercrop with legumes to provide nitrogen.
Pest & Diseases Pest Name Symptoms Control
Citrus rust mite Fruit to turn silvery, reddish brown, or blackish. Use Sulphur-based pesticides
Citrus aphids See brown to black aphids on leaves Use insecticides
Maturity Duration 2 – 4 Years depending on the variety
Climatic Conditions Altitude of 2100 m and for optimal growth a temperature range from 2° to 30° C is ideal. Citrus trees grow on a wide range of soils varying from sandy soils to those high in clay. A pH range of 5.5 to 6.0 is ideal. Rainfall of above 1000 mm is needed for fair crop.
Harvesting Harvest fruits when they are mature. Mature fruits change colour where night temperature is about 14°C coupled with low humidity. In low altitude areas where fruits remain green, it is necessary to test a few fruits for maturity. Harvest fruits using a sharp knife, taking care not to bruise the fruits
Post Harvest and Storage Wash, sor and grade fruits under shade. Washing water must be clean or treated. Discard deformed and infected fruitsPack fruits in aerated containers for transport to the market
Growing Regions Central, Western, Nyanza, Coast, Eastern and Rift Valley.
Expected yields 10 – 15 tons per hectare


Processing Squeezed into Juice and extracts.


Place Marketed locally.
Price Kshs 20-38 per kg


Products / By Products Juice, Yoghurt, Jams, Extract & Flavours
Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values Energy: 47.0 / 2%; Carbohydrates: 11.7 / 4%; Proteins: 0.9 / 2%; Vitamin C: 53.2 / 89%;


Bergamot orange is primarily grown for oil used in perfumery.


Income Per Hectare: Kshs 200,000 (10,000kgs * 20/-)Cost per Hectare: Kshs. 60,000 (30% of Income).NET:    Kshs. 140,000 (70% of Income).

Break Even Yield (Where Cost=Income): = 3000 kgs per hectare.

Income Frequency: Yearly. Harvested once to twice per year.

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