Mango

INTRODUCTION

The Mango fruit is one of the most important tropical fruits. It is native to the Indian Monsoon region and has been cultivated for the last 4000 years. It was introduced to East Africa in the 14th century. Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). Mango has now become an important domestic and export crop in Kenya and Tanzania.They can also be. All remains from the fruits can be used to feed animals. The young leaves for example are a very good cattle feed.

PRODUCTION

Varieties Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Haden, Sabre, Kent.Apple and Ngowe are in high demand for local and export markets.

 

Seed Rate 125  plants per ha
Fertilizer Rate 60gm/hole DAP 2 debe/hole manure 75gm/plant CAN
Planting Spacing 8m x 10m and a plant population of 125  plants per ha
Husbandry Mango is propagated both vegetatively and by seed. Mango seeds quickly loose their viability. Use healthy, fresh seeds from well-grown, mature trees. To speed up germination, the hard husk can be removed before sowing. Seeds will sprout in 1 to 2 weeks. Plants are ready for grafting when they have reached pencil-thickness at about 20 cm above soil level. The planting hole should be 60 x 60 cm and 100 cm deep. Formative pruning is done in the first years. Structural pruning should be done after fruit harvest. Clear excessive vegetation regularly from beneath the trees and use as mulch.
Pest & Diseases Pest Name Symptoms Control
Fruit fly Premature coloring of fruitsFruit flesh become liquid  white maggots in the fruit Spray with fenthionCollect fallen fruits and burry them
Expected Duration from Planting to Harvesting 4-5 years and reach full maturity at about 20 years of age.
Climatic Conditions Mango grows best in tropical summer rain regions, at temperatures between 24°C and 28°C. Once a mango tree is well established, it is very resistant to drought. Mango needs a dry period or cooler temperatures to start blossoming and produce fruits. Mangoes grow well below an altitude of 1000m.Mango will grow on a rainfall as little as 650 mm per year, but do better on higher rainfall of around 1500 mm. Mango grow in most soils if they are well drained. Ideal for good growth is a deep (at least three m), fertile soil. A pH of 5.5 to 7.5 is desirable. In Kenya, the major production season is December to March.
Harvesting Harvest mango fruit at the mature-green stage, when they are hard and green. Pick fruit by hand. Pack the fruit in a single layer with the stalks facing downwards in the box or crate. The latex dripping from the stalk drops onto an absorbent material (for example tissue paper placed at the bottom of the container).
Post Harvest and Storage Although mature mangoes ripen fairly rapidly, they have a poor tolerance to temperatures below 10°C, especially when freshly picked. Ripe fruits can, however, be stored as low as 7 to 8° C without developing chilling injury.Hot water treatment (HWT) is an effective post-harvest treatment method for mango. Dipping newly harvested fruits into hot water minimizes fruit fly damage and anthracnose. The fruit is perishable and should be marketed as quickly as possible.
Growing Regions Eastern, Coast, Western and Nyanza
Expected yields Up to  15 – 23 ton/ha per year (200 to 500 fruits per tree per year)

PROCESSING

Processing Fruits are pressed into Juice or Marmalade. Also dried into Candies

MARKETING

Place Sold locally and exported
Price Kshs 10 – 20 per Piece (Kshs 40 per kg)

CONSUMPTION

Products / By Products Eaten fresh and used to make Juice or Marmalade. Dried and made into candy.
Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values Energy 65.0 / 3%; Carbohydrates 17.0 / 6%; Pottasium  156 / 4%; Vitamin A 765 IU / 15%; Vitamin C 27.7 / 46%;

FACTS & FIGURES

The young leaves for example are a very good cattle feed.The mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines.

India is the top producer of mango worldwide.

BUSINESS CASE

Income Per Hectare: Kshs 600,000 (15,000kgs * 40/-)Cost per Hectare: Kshs. 180,000 (30% of Income).

NET:    Kshs. 420,000 (60% of Income).

Break Even Yield (Where Cost=Income): = 4500 kgs per hectare.

Income Frequency: Twice per year. Thrice under irrigation.




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