Capsicum

INTRODUCTION

Capsicum is also known as pilipili hoho in Swahili. Capsicum is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its species are native to the Americas where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. It is rarely attacked by diseases or pests.

PRODUCTION

Varieties CaliforniaWonder

Yolo wonder

Seed Rate Use 22,2222 per hectare
Fertilizer Rate 250kg/ha DAP
Planting Spacing 90x50cm
Husbandry Sow in the nursery. It will take about 2-3 weeks for them to germinate. It will then be ready for transplanting within 6 weeks. Planting on the farm field is done on wet furrows by pressing the seedling down with your index finger deep enough – roughly one inch. Transplanted capsicums will loose the first 2-3 leaves. Capsicum peppers are ready for harvest 3-6 weeks after flowering depending on the fruit maturity desired.
Pest & Diseases Pest Name Symptoms Control
Aphids Suck the plat causingDistortion especially during the dry spell Spray with Dimethoate
Expected Duration from Planting to Harvesting 3 months
Climatic Conditions Capsicum are grown ideally in hot season. Manual weeding is usual for weed control. It is most critical at the reproductive phase. Capsicum peppers thrive best if supplied with a generous amount of organic matter. Staking can help minimise lodging. Grow best on well-drained loamy soils at pH 5.5-6.8 and a rainfall between 600 and 1250 mm. Optimal temperatures for productivity are between 18 and 30°C.
Harvesting During harvesting ensure the fruit is not touching the wet furrows.
Post Harvest and Storage During transportation and storage, ensure the fruit is not injured. Keep the fruit in a cool dry space.
Growing Regions Eastern Province, Central Kenya and Coastal region
Expected yields Up to 10 ton/ha

PROCESSING

Processing They can be preserved in the form of a jam, or by drying, pickling or freezing. You can dry in the sun for 10-20 days.

MARKETING

Place Marketed locally and also exported
Price Kshs 30 – 50 per 1kg

CONSUMPTION

Products / Use Spices and food vegetables, Also used as medicine
Nutritional value – per 100 g / % Daily Values Energy ; Carbohydrates ; Fat ; Protein ; Phosphorus ; Iron ; Pottasium  ; Thiamine (vit. B1) ; Riboflavin ;

FACTS & FIGURES

Capsaicin a component of Capsicum is used in topical medications as a circulatory stimulant and analgesic.

BUSINESS CASE

Income Per Hectare: Kshs 300,000 (10,000kgs * 30/-)Cost per Hectare: Kshs. 120,000 (40% of Income).

NET:    Kshs. 280,000 (60% of Income).

Break Even Yield (Where Cost=Income): = 4000 kgs per hectare.

Income Frequency: Twice per year. Thrice under irrigation.